어제였던가요? 미국 시간으로 1월 5일 뉴스를 듣던 중, Los Angeles 근교의 Santa Monica 에 그 유명한 Kogi 를 비롯, 다수의 기업형 Food Truck이 한 자리에 모여서 시장을 만든다는 뉴스가 나왔습니다. 들으면서도 '어...??' 생각하며 의아하게 생각했었습니다. 

미국에서는 Food Truck 이라고 하면.. 보통 이렇게 생겼죠. Taco Truck 이라고도 부르고, Roach coach 라고도 부릅니다.


재래시장에 깔리고 깔린게 음식 노점상인 (그리고 겁나게 맛있는) 한국에서는 별로 의아하게 생각할 것이 없습니다만, 이런 문화가 존재하지 않는 미국에서, 이렇게 '노점상' 같은 트럭이 한 군데 몰린다는 건 거의 '있을 수 없는' 일입니다. 대부분의 Zoning Code에서 그런 행위를 불법으로 규정하고 있기 때문이지요. 

하여튼, 저의 의아함에도 불구하고, 첫날 영업은 거의 대박이었던 것으로 보입니다. http://laist.com/2010/01/05/photos_the_santa_monica_gourmet_foo.php?gallery0Pic=1#gallery

그런데, 바로 오늘 1월 6일!! 산타모니카 시 공무원들이 들이닥쳐서 이 축제의 장을 폐쇄시켜버렸네요. 자세한 뉴스 보실까요..? 


요약하면, 산타모니카 Zoning 조례에 의하면 C-4 조닝의 부동산에 이런 시설물을 설치하는 것은 불법이다... 그래서 일단 폐쇄하고, 방법을 찾아보자.. 이런 이야기입니다. 

역시, 제 직감이 맞았던 거지요. 미국의 조닝 조례는 상당히 엄격한 편이어서, 주거지역이나 왠만한 상업지역은 "허가 되는 것' 만을 적시하고 있습니다. 그 목록에 들어가지 않으면, 그 토지이용 - 이 경우에는 푸드트럭 시장 - 은 허가되지 않는 것이지요. 만일, '... 만 빼놓고는 다 허가된다' 라는 식의 조례가 있었더라면, 아마 이런 토지이용은 별 문제 없이 허가받을 수 있었을 겁니다. 

그리고, 대민업무 도시계획 공무원으로서 느끼는 건데요. 도시계획법이나 조례의 위반은, 거의 잘 모르고 지나갑니다. 그러다가 '이런 위반이 있다' 라는 사실을 알게 될 즈음에는 이미 때가 너무 늦거나, 문제가 커져버린 다음인 경우가 많습니다. 건축법 위반 사항인 경우에야, 건물 좀 수리하면 됩니다만 (쉽게 이야기하면 그렇다는 말입니다) 도시계획 조례/법규에 해당 토지이용이 불법으로 규정되어 있다면.. 그 이용 자체가 불가능하기 때문에 이야기가 매우 힘들어지지요. 아마, 이 푸드트럭 시장 같은 경우에는, 거의 문 닫아야 할겁니다. 단, 정치적인 압력이 생긴다면 다른 이야기가 될 수도 있지요. 

개인적으로는, 이런 참신한 발상이 묻힌다는 건 조금 아쉽네요. 바로 이런 경우를 두고 '법규가 시민생활의 급격한, 그리고 창의적인 발전을 따라잡지 못하는' 현상이라 할 수 있겠네요. 조닝의 숙명이라고 할까요...??



뱀다리 -  도움이 되셨나요?? 혹시 그러시다면 옆의 구글 안내글에 조금만 관심을 가져주시겠어요? 블로그 운영에 많은 도움 되겠습니다. 감사합니다. 
Posted by 하린/가빈대디 하린대디
이번주 일요일자 로스엔젤레스 타임즈에 머릿기사로 나왔던 내용입니다. 얼마전에 워렌 버핏이 철도회사에 대규모 투자를 단행하면서 화제를 모은 적이 있지요? 철도를 사양산업으로 취급하는 미국의 일반적 정서와는 다소 동떨어진 결정이라, 일반 대중은 다소의외로 받아들였습니다. 기사를 간단히 요약하자면... - 워렌 버핏이 최근 3천 4백만달러 규모의 투자를 통해 Northern Santa Fe Corp. 라는 미국 굴지의 철도회사의 대주주가 되었다. - 그 근본에는 세계화되어가는 세계에서는 철도가 중요한 역할을 차지할 것이라는 믿음이 있었다. 이미 아시아, 특히 중국, 과의 교역에서는 철도를 이용한 운송이 매우 중요하다. - 월마트나 코스트코 같은 대형 할인매장은 특히 철도의존도가 높다. - 환경 문제도 철도의 이점이다. 철도는 1갤론 (3.86리터)의 석유로 화물 1톤을 457 마일 (약 750킬로미터) 정도 수송할 수 있다. - 예상되는 어려움으로는 - 경기침체 - 멕시코나 파나마의 저렴한 항구로부터의 경쟁 - 예상되는 정부규제 - 캘리포니아 주의 엄격한 환경관리법 - 오바마 행정부의 재생가능한 에너지 지원 강화 (석탄 발전소용 연료의 상당부분을 철도로 수송)


Freight trains make big comeback in nation's transportation network

Warren Buffett's recent purchase of Burlington Northern Santa Fe shows the renewed importance of railroads in the global supply chain.

By Alana Semuels

January 3, 2010

More than 4,000 miles of train tracks stretch through California, winding up the blustery Cajon Pass and snaking through the desert surrounding Barstow.

Those tracks could be seeing a lot more traffic in the next few years as trains loaded with Chinese-made toys, electronics and clothing roll eastward, connecting West Coast ports with cities across the U.S.

Warren Buffett is a believer. In November, the world's second-richest man paid $34 billion for railroad giant Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corp., despite a deep downturn in the railroad industry. Buffett characterized his investment as an "all-in wager on the economic future of the United States." But it's also a bet on globalization and the renewed importance of rail in the nation's transportation network.

Southern California is a key hub in his new empire. About 40% of all goods that the U.S. receives in containers from overseas enter the country through the seaports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. That freight must then move overland to retailers across the country.

Fort Worth-based BNSF has invested hundreds of millions of dollars in recent years to beef up its Southern California operations to grab a bigger share of that business.

"Within our 28-state network, California is incredibly important to us," BNSF Chief Executive Matthew K. Rose said. "A lot of trade comes through there, a lot gets consumed in California, and a lot gets handled and repackaged there."

China's rise has given a new push to U.S. railroads, which have chugged their way back into the nation's transportation future after losing ground for decades to the trucking industry.

The sheer volume of inbound cargo from Asia to North America -- more than 40 million container loads last year -- has made it cost-prohibitive to haul all those goods over congested U.S. highways.

Rail companies have strengthened their networks and upgraded their equipment to handle the ubiquitous metal shipping containers to provide a nearly seamless transition from cargo ship to freight train to truck or any combination in between. This so-called intermodal traffic has been the fastest-growing segment of the industry for about a decade.

In 2008, international and domestic intermodal cargo accounted for nearly a third of BNSF's revenue, a figure that's expected to grow when the U.S. economy gets back on track.

Although factory jobs have been lost to Asia, international trade is now a pillar of the Southern California economy, accounting for more than 300,000 jobs. Chains such as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and Costco Wholesale Corp. depend on the nation's trains running on time.

"There wouldn't be big-box retail and globalization if you had to truck in all those containers -- it wouldn't be worth the cost," said Anthony Hatch, a rail consultant in New York.

Over the last 20 years, ton-miles of freight hauled by the nation's biggest railroads doubled, from 876,984 ton-miles in 1985 to 1,770,545 in 2007, according to the most recent government figures. Paul Bingham, managing director of world trade and transportation markets at research firm IHS Global Insight Inc., projects that number will grow 14% within a decade.

Environmental concerns are also helping to fuel rail's comeback. Railroads can move a ton of freight an average of 457 miles on a gallon of fuel, according to the Assn. of American Railroads.

Freight rail's resurgence has been stunning for even some of its most die-hard devotees. Pittsburgh rail entrepreneur Henry Posner III recalls the mid-1970s, when railroads were tumbling into bankruptcy after losing market share to big rigs and air freight. He credits deregulation in the 1980s, and the brutal downsizing and cost-cutting that followed, for the industry's survival.

Posner's company, Railroad Development Corp., owns a piece of what was once the famed Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad, as well as some lines in Latin America.

"Growing up, I was told that the age of the train was just around the corner, and in fact I have lived to see it," Posner said.

He said Buffett's big bet on rail was a "reflection of the position of the rail industry as an important part of our national transportation infrastructure."

One of the linchpins of this global supply chain can be found in the industrial cities of Vernon and Commerce, home to BNSF's Hobart rail yard. The massive facility, on 245 acres near the 710 Freeway, is one of the biggest operations of its kind in the world. Workers toil 24 hours a day, seven days a week, offloading shipping containers ferried by big rigs arriving straight from the ports. They pluck the uniform boxes from the backs of the 18-wheelers and stack them neatly on lines of train cars, some stretching two miles.

Other containers are offloaded directly from cargo ships to trains inside the ports.

On a recent morning at the Port of Los Angeles, BNSF conductor Dennis Marquez and engineer Armando Nevarez prepared to leave for Clovis, N.M., hauling 282 double-stacked shipping containers filled with assorted freight. This run required four locomotives, hitched one behind the other, to haul 6,000 tons of freight up mountain passes.

Walking through the bright-orange railway vehicles, the engineers inspected fuel levels, checked the air brakes and stored food in an onboard refrigerator. Outside, the horn of another train blew nearby.

Upon arriving in New Mexico, the cars of shipping containers would be attached to other locomotives headed for destinations across the country.

Ten years ago, the journey out of Los Angeles would have taken hours, the trains forced to navigate dozens of crossings over congested city streets. No longer, thanks to the Alameda Corridor, a 20-mile freight rail expressway leading out of the ports.

Completed in 2002, the $3.4-billion public-private partnership includes a 10-mile dedicated underground tunnel that allows BNSF and its West Coast rival, Union Pacific, to avoid L.A. traffic and speed their cargo to the rest of the nation.

Activity has slowed with the global downturn. U.S. freight rail traffic in 2009 was down about 16% from 2008. Traffic in the Alameda Corridor was down 20% in the first 11 months of 2009 compared with the same period in 2008. Some of that business might not return even when imports rebound.

That's because seaports in Mexico and Canada are becoming less expensive than Los Angeles and Long Beach, analysts said. A project to deepen the Panama Canal, expected to be completed in 2014, could make it more economical for massive ships from Asia to head directly to ports on the East Coast.

Other factors could hurt too. A bill pending in Congress seeks to partially re-regulate railroads. California's tough environmental restrictions could add to operating costs. And if the U.S. weans itself off coal for electricity production, railroads would lose a big chunk of their revenue because they haul much of that fuel to the nation's power plants.

Still, West Coast railroads aren't yet ready to surrender the advantage they've gained as globalization has brought more trade through their ports. They're making big capital investments to make trains even faster and more environmentally friendly.

BNSF is double-tracking its entire transcontinental line and in November 2008 finished laying a third track over the Cajon Pass. It has also been straightening curves and polishing the steel track to lower resistance and save fuel, said Bingham, the research analyst. It worked with the government to develop a hydrogen fuel cell locomotive, which it brought to Los Angeles, and is lobbying to create a rail yard closer to the ports to handle increased container traffic.

Whether in Los Angeles or Omaha, analysts agree that the increased dependence on rail makes Buffett's bet on BNSF a smart one. Railroads may be down in this recession, but this time they won't be left for dead, as long as the U.S. economy one day recovers too.

"We're very bullish on most of the railroads," said Jeffrey Kaufman, managing director of the brokerage firm Sterne, Agee & Leach. "These are good franchises. They're going to be around for a long time."

alana.semuels@latimes.com

Posted by 하린/가빈대디 하린대디
계속되는 불경기의 여파로 아파트 공실률이 높아지자, 소유주 입장에서는 렌트를 낮추어서라도 기존의 세입자를 붙들어 두어야 하게 되었다. 그러나, 아무리 그렇다고 해도 목마른 사람이 먼저 우물을 파는 법. 월세를 재조정해달라는 이야기를 서면으로 전달하기 전 까지는 아무 것도 할 수 없는 것 아닌가.

그래서, 구글 검색으로 렌트 재조정 편지 (Rent Reduction Request Letter)를 찾아봤는데.. 그닥 마음에 드는 것을 찾지는 못했다. 결국 그냥 내가 써서 하는 수 밖에. 막상 쓰고나니, 상당히 괜찮게 나온 것 같아서 마음에 들기도 하고.. 해서 여기 올려본다. 

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******* Apartment
**** W *** Street
Los Angeles, CA ****

Re: Request for lease extension

Dear Management,

Recently, I became aware of that my lease contract for ***** Unit *** expired. Since my experience with this apartment complex has been such a pleasant one, I am willing to commit to live another year in this great neighborhood. It is my joy to state that the apartment complex has improved in terms of organization and day-to-day operation since new manager Ms. *** arrived. I firmly believe that she has been at the center of this positive movement, and that it has been one of the major factors to discontinue our effort to look elsewhere to move. Please accept this letter as my family’s request for extending our lease of unit *** for another 12 months.

However, I also want to make a humble request to reduce rent. Please be reminded that my current rent has been set at $*** per month, which was reflecting the economic and market condition of last year. As this year’s recession has hit hard many people, I am not an exception to that. Even though I have always satisfied my due diligence to submit my monthly rent payment on time for past 12 months, I am afraid to foresee some economic hardships to affect me deeper next year. The prime example will be that my lovely wife will have to be forced out of work for substantial period of year 2010 to deliver a baby in March, 2010. Given these reasons, I would like to make a polite and humble request to lower my monthly least payment to $***. Please be advised that I am flexible to fine-tune detailed terms of contract.

I am so glad to have this opportunity to write this letter to you. Please review my suggestions contained in this letter and feel free to contact me for further discussions. It would be my upmost delight to move forward and continue my delightful experience in ***** Apartment. In case you need to reach me, please call ***) *** **** or ***) *** ****.

Lastly but not the least, I want to present my most sincere wish for happy and prosperous year 2010.

Best regards,                                                     

*******

 

Resident of Unit ***

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Posted by 하린/가빈대디 하린대디