이번주 Economist 를 읽다가, 정말 재미있는 기사가 나왔길래 포스팅해봅니다. 아프리카의 희귀동물과 그 보호방법에 대한 분석기사였습니다. 기사 여기저기에 지속가능한 개발 - Sustainable Development 에 관한 힌트 및 정보가 여기저기에 흩어져 있습니다. 길지만 한번 꼭 읽어보실만 한 것 같아서 올립니다. 


기사 중간에 보시면 Tswalu 라는 곳에 관한 내용이 나와 있습니다. 이 부분이 제 흥미를 끌었습니다. 그냥 원문을 옮겨보겠습니다. 

Private conservancies are an even bigger opportunity. Some of these are owned by individuals or conservation groups; Ol Pejeta is a not-for-profit company with shareholders. Others are community initiatives, where local people receive an income for promoting conservation. Conservancies can earn money directly from tourism, hunting, farming, forestry and exploiting plants for medicines and cosmetics. They can also be paid for preserving a watershed, stopping flooding and runoff, or for offsetting carbon emissions. But the biggest potential is probably in “non-use” earnings, where large numbers of people around the world pay small sums to buy shares in African biodiversity not to use it, but simply because they believe its protection is important to the planet. The trick is to create a non-use market that works.

A spectacular example of individual generosity is Tswalu, South Africa’s largest private conservancy. It stands high in the Kalahari desert, towards Botswana. It is a harsh and beautiful landscape, painted in shades of yellow and grey. Temperatures drop below freezing in the winter. Water is scarce. Some conservationists might sniff at Tswalu’s tarmac airstrip and the power lines running across the property. But that misses the larger land reclamation: 43 farms aggregated into a 100,000-hectare block and turned over to wildlife preservation. “Our aim is to restore the Kalahari to itself,” says Tswalu’s owner, Nicky Oppenheimer, who also serves as chairman of De Beers, a diamond firm. Tswalu’s head of wildlife, Gus Van Dyk, says that the farmers had killed almost everything that had teeth or claws. Rehabilitation is a long-term project, he says, but eagles are returning and mountain zebras are back.

Mr Oppenheimer admits that the economics of Tswalu do not add up. His family puts in several million dollars a year to balance the books. It is not clear if money earned from the live-capture and sale of oryx, springbok and other animals, supplemented by earnings from a lodge that charges $850 a night, will ever be enough to make it pay. The conservancy must look after local residents as well as roads and equipment. New housing has been built, along with a kindergarten and a clinic. Making a dent in local poverty is important. Mr Van Dyk cautiously says that rates of illiteracy and alcoholism among those living on Tswalu seem to be falling.

Tswalu에 대한 제 관심포인트를 정리해보자면,

1. Non-use에 대한 경제적 이득을 얻을 수 있도록 해야한다. 

2. Tswalu 와 같이, 민간자본이 주도하는 개간 및 보호 프로젝트들도 있다. Tswalu 는 장기적 목표를 설정하고 진행하는 프로젝트이며, 이 개간지/보호구역에서 도축되는 영양이나 가젤의 고기를 주변의 사장에 판매하여 경제적 이익을 주는 방식도 생각 할 수 있다 -> 지역주민들에게 직접적인 경제적 이익을 줄 수 있는 보존방식이 좋다. 

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